It Starts With the Ingredients

    For you to experience regenerative well-being, we have designed our products with synergy and bioavailability in mind. Each ingredient has a purpose in the symphony, and every product is more than the sum of its parts. Learn more about each ingredient’s super powers below.


    Acetyl-L-Carnitine helps to form the memory-boosting neurotransmitter called acetylcholine. Acetylcholine helps with mental alertness and fluid thought. 

    ALCAR helps fuel mitochondria in the brain. As a nootropic, ALCAR users report a boost in energy and quick thinking.

    A common reason to include ALCAR in many nootropic products is its ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. Alcar is said to decrease oxidative damage to the hippocampus, which prevents memory loss.

    Carnitine, from acetyl-l-carnitine, might support and protect glutamate receptors from occasional over-excitement. ALCAR may also have a role in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) production, and improved circulation in the brain.

    Alpha GPC is a choline source that passes the blood-brain barrier especially well and thus is a common ingredient in nootropic products. Choline is needed for acetylcholine formation (“the learning neurotransmitter”) and it spares other choline sources, including other brain cells. Alpha GPC naturally occurs in the brain as a byproduct of phosphatidylcholine. When the brain needs more choline, and doesn’t get enough from food, it breaks down phosphatidylcholine from cell membranes. We can make some choline in the liver, but it’s good to get some from food also, such as egg yolks, lecithin, fish or liver. Choline deficiency can lead to fatty liver disease and problems with methylation. If you do lots of work with your neurotransmitters and use some stimulants, make sure to get some choline from your diet.

    When the immune system has things to do, it will use a ton of vitamin C. Vitamin C is critically important for macrophages and neutrophils. Without vitamin C, the immune system is quite crippled. Vitamin C is beneficial for the immune system in many ways. For example, a goat produces 10-100 times the vitamin C when it gets sick, compared to normal levels. Humans lack the ability to produce vitamin C, and it may be wise to supplement with vitamin C to prevent seasonal colds. Vitamin C also helps with collagen production, strengthening the connective tissues inside the digestive tract. Healthy gut is essential for good immunity.

    Pureway C is said to pass the cell wall into the cell better than normal ascorbic acid. Pureway was developed to increase vitamin C absorption and durability.

    Ashwagandha is anxiolytic, meaning it can reduce anxiety. It can improve mental performance and focus. Ashwagandha may enhance GABA receptors and serotonin in the brain, helping with relaxation. Ashwagandha contains glycowithanolides which are shown to reduce cortisol. Ashwagandha may help with the growth and regeneration of many types of nerve cells. It helps acetylcholine last longer in the brain, helping improve memory, learning and cognition. Ashwagandha is a root that has a long history in Indian Ayurvedic Medicine, where it has mostly been used in combinations with other herbs such as bacopa.

    This perennial green herb helps keep the mind calm and focused in stressful situations. Bacopa has an anti-anxiety effect, without being sedative. Bacopa increases levels of endogenous antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in the brain. It enhances many of the protective mechanisms of the brain. Bacopa contains unique compounds like Bacoside A, that may be responsible for its protective effects. For example, bacoside A reduces the levels of stress marker HSP70. Bacopa also enhances neurite branching and proliferation. Bacopa is a memory enhancer. It has been used in India for thousands of years. It is believed that ancient scholars utilized Bacopa as a nootropic to memorize extensive hymns and scriptures.

    Calcium has a place in this formula to balance the magnesium. Together they may help with overall relaxation to reduce muscle stiffness. It goes well with other electrolytes such as potassium. There is speculation that disturbances in REM sleep could be linked to calcium deficiency, as well as other deficiencies of deep sleep. In some cases normal course of sleep can be restored by normalizing blood calcium levels. 

    Calcium has a role in the release of melatonin, which is important for a good night’s sleep. Calcium helps the brain use tryptophan to manufacture melatonin.

    Calcium channel activity in the brain is increased during sleep. Just don’t take too much calcium without magnesium! If calcium is high and magnesium low, the result can be elevated cortisol and tightness in the body.

    Cat's claw is a woody vine that grows wild in the Amazon rainforest and other tropical areas of Central and South America. Its thorns resemble a cat's claws. Uncaria tomentosa, or Una de gato, works as a neuroprotectant during stress. Cat’s Claw improves circulation and stimulates BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), which helps grow new neurons and synapses and preserve existing ones. This helps with learning, memory and higher thinking. Traditionally Cat’s Claw is known to help with coordination and cognitive function, helping you think and focus. Cat’s Claw can generally help lower inflammation. It is said to strengthen synapses and it’s a powerful antiviral. Native people have been using Cat’s Claw for over 2000 years for medical and spiritual purposes.

    Chaga is a medicinal mushroom growing on trees, mainly on the birch in northernmost latitudes. This black mushroom is loaded with effective beta-glucans to help balance or modulate the immune health and overall wellness. Chaga is adaptogenic, anti-inflammatory, strong antioxidant and works well with all body types. Chaga is not a stimulant like coffee, but still gets you going. Chaga contains numerous compounds that are anti-viral, antibacterial and antifungal. It is considered to be a tonic Mushroom to support overall wellness. You can enjoy chaga daily for the rest of your life: it’s quite easy on the body and digestion.

    You can probably find chamomile in your favorite evening tea formula. It’s a mild sedative and very common herb in all sorts of sleep products. Calming the body, it helps deepen your sleep.

    The phytochemicals in chamomile, such as chrysin, bind with GABA receptors. This helps reduce brain activity, resulting in an overall calming effect on the central nervous system. Chamomile may enhance autophagy during sleep, meaning that the body can better get rid of junk it no longer needs.

    Also called CDP-choline, Citicoline is one of the most common choline sources in modern-day nootropics. Citicoline turns partly into Uridine, which is also a common ingredient in nootropics. Uridine helps boost the production of neurites, increasing the number of synapses in the brain. For uridine to be useful as a supplement, it should be combined with building blocks such as choline, DHA, and B vitamins. We recommend you to take a high quality EPA-DHA supplement with pretty much any nootropic products you use; other than that, we got you covered.

    Citicoline may amplify the impact of other nootropics and accelerate brain cell membrane formation.

    Bioflavonoids are there to make vitamin C more complete, helping ascorbic acid maintain its activity longer. Initially they were labeled as vitamin P because of their health benefits. This is because bioflavonoids, especially the citrus derivative, have powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that help maintain the function of cells within the immune system. 

    There are over known 6000 flavonoids, and all fruits and vegetables contain some of them. Most of the overall antioxidant effect of food is caused by flavonoids. Many of these flavonoids protect the brain, liver and DNA.

    Copper is an essential trace mineral for the immune system and an important balancer for zinc. Consuming large amounts of zinc may lead to copper deficiency and vice versa. 

    Copper is an antiviral element used in many places where it’s important to minimize contamination risk. Copper is toxic to all life at higher concentrations, and the human immune system (or the white blood cells) uses this toxicity to destroy unwanted invaders. In this formula, the main purpose for copper is to maintain a balance with zinc.

    We like elderberries for their antiviral properties and long history of use as cold- and flu fighting remedy. Elderberry has a strong tradition in the treatment of all sorts of infectious conditions. When compared with echinacea, another common herb for that purpose, elderberry is perhaps more tonic, and gentler for the stomach in the long run. In the worst case it’s a safe antioxidant-rich berry, and at best it may help stay healthy during the flu season.

    The extract of ginkgo leaves improves circulation in the brain and has powerful antioxidant benefits. Ginkgo contain beneficial or even unique compounds of flavonoids, ginglolides and bilobalid terpenes. It increases or preserves dopamine, acetylcholine, noradrenaline and nitric oxide levels. It even increases BDNF levels and promotes neurogenesis. Ginkgo can help with all sorts of cognitive tasks, from memory to pattern recognition and creativity to problem solving. It also boosts your mood, attention and information processing speed. Ginkgo can make dopamine last longer, and like theanine or fun exercise, it protects neurons from glutamate overdose. The Ginkgo tree can grow for up to a thousand years. It’s estimated to be the oldest tree species in existence today.

    Guayusa is related to another caffeine-containing tree in the same regions, Yerba Mate. The leaves contain caffeine, theanine like green tea, and theobromine like chocolate – along with supporting alkaloids and hundreds of antioxidants. The leaves contain saponins, polyphenols, flavonoids, vitamins, terpenes, chlorogenic acid, and other healthy compounds for a balanced overall effect. If you were to choose just one caffeine-containing stimulant tea, we would recommend to try out Guayusa: it gets you going in a balanced manner and without sharp energy crashes. Guayusa is a tree or bush that grows wild in the Amazon rainforest for up to 30 meters of height.

    Kelp extract contains iodine, which is required for a healthy immune system. Iodine is antibacterial, antiparasitic and antiviral. Iodine is commonly used as an antiseptic. It’s a part of what the immune system uses to destroy pathogens. It’s also an energy booster, especially via thyroid function. Kelp is one of the highest known natural sources of minerals. Kelp in particular is a good source of potassium, calcium, iodine, magnesium, and selenium. Kelp also contains an ingredient, Fucoidan, which has struck the interest of researchers in the field of immunology. Fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide found in the cell walls of many species of Brown seaweed. Fucoidans may support immune function, provide cardiovascular support and keep certain levels of inflammation within a healthy range. The iodine in Kelp promotes a healthy metabolism.

    The nut of the Kola tree is a nutrient-dense stimulant herb. Besides the stimulating combination of caffeine and theobromine, kola contains kolanin, which increases cerebral circulation. Phenolic compounds in kola, such as catechin, epicatechin, apigenin, and naringin, provide antioxidant properties and restrict the activities of α-glucosidase and α-amylase. Kola nut has thousands of years of history in native African healing practices.

    Licorice root plays an important part in many Chinese herbal combinations. Licorice root can harmonize the formulas by protecting the gut. It also has some of its own antiviral activity, due to its triterpenoid content. It also has some polysaccharides with immunomodulatory properties. More than 20 triterpenoids and nearly 300 flavonoids have been isolated from licorice. These compounds possess many pharmacological activities, such as antiviral, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and other activities.

    Theanine, an amino acid found in Tea leaves, is the most common synergistic combination with caffeine in nootropic products and among biohackers. We aim to use balanced and versatile caffeine sources in our product, but still we want to balance the small amount of stimulation in our formula with the soothing effects of theanine. Like many other ingredients in the formula, theanine is associated with growth factors like BDNF & NGF, and neurotransmitters like serotonin and dopamine, along with the soothing GABA. Theanine is de-stressing in many interesting ways. It improves alertness, while reducing anxiety. 

    Theanine has a wide dosage range, meaning it’s very safe.

    L-Tryptophan is the precursor to 5-htp and then serotonin and finally melatonin. So the most natural idea is to get the amino acid tryptophan and start from the bottom of the chain. We included a safely small amount of tryptophan, to make sure the body has what it needs to build its own melatonin.

    Lion’s Mane is a medicinal and culinary mushroom growing on trees. It’s known for boosting Nerve Growth Factor. That makes Lion’s Mane a common ingredient in many of today’s nootropic products. Lion's Mane enhanced neurogenesis is generally good for rapid learning, problem solving, memory and cognition. With Lion’s Mane you can experience enhanced conversation and language skills, improved mood and resiliency. As a culinary mushroom, Lion's mane is so safe that we included it as our main ingredient in the Focus Blend.

    Magnesium is extremely important for the metabolism of many enzymes, intracellular homeostasis and for activation of thiamine and therefore, for a very wide range of crucial body functions. It’s a mineral we rarely get enough of in the modern world with our magnesium-depleting stresses and magnesium-depleted food system. Even vitamin D doesn’t work without magnesium, because magnesium is needed for the enzymes to function that convert vitamin D to its active calcitriol form. Demanding mental work increases magnesium burn rate. Cells of the body need sufficient intracellular free ionic magnesium for the adaptive immune system to work properly.

    Magnesium is the “sleep mineral”. Yet, some forms of magnesium can be somewhat energizing for some people in some situations. Some people for example report difficulties getting to sleep after using magnesium malate. Magnesium glycinate is the sleepiest form, because glycine in itself acts as a calming neurotransmitter in the brain. Magnesium can help sensitize GABAergic receptors for calming effect and stabilize glutamate receptors for reduced anxiety. Magnesium can block one of the main glutamate receptors (called NMDA).

    Magnolia extract is a medicinal compound from the bark and flower buds of the magnolia tree. It contains lignans called honokiol and magnolol, which affect the body through many chemical pathways. Magnolia’s main benefit is in its anti-anxiety effects. It modulates the cortisol production and inhibits adrenaline. Magnolia boosts GABA, the relaxing neurotransmitter. Traditionally magnolia has been used in Chinese and Japanese medicines for the treatment of anxiety, asthma, depression, gastrointestinal disorders and headaches.

    Maitake is another mushroom good for immunity. These mushrooms are something to take daily and over time they will nourish and modulate the immune system. Maitake has a unique polysaccharide called beta-1,6-glucan, which is considered one of the best adaptogens and immunostimulants. Maitake promotes cellular health for immune support by providing building blocks for metabolic activity; it also offers synergistic support for other Mushrooms. Multiple clinical trials have been conducted on Maitake extracts for support of immune function, healthy blood sugar metabolism, a healthy inflammatory response and antioxidant properties. Maitake was used as a currency during Japan’s feudal era! It was said to be as valuable as silver by weight.

    Melissa officinalis, or Lemon Balm, is a herbal plant that has been used in different cultures. It is a calming stress reliever. It also has antiviral properties and overall anti-inflammatory health benefits. Lemon Balm contains rosmarinic acid, which inhibits GABA transminase, an enzyme that breaks down GABA. That makes GABA levels increase, which can help us get to sleep faster and nicer with a calm happy mind, while also reducing night time awakenings.

    NAC is here to help with glutathione production, together with selenium and vitamin c. One role of antioxidants like NAC and glutathione is to make sure the immune system can do its destructive job if needed, without causing too many inflammatory fires. These antioxidants are there to help quench those fires. NAC is a more potent form of cysteine, one of the three amino acids needed for glutathione formation.

    Tyrosine is sort of an “antidote” or balancer for caffeine and overall stimulation. It balances some of what caffeine unbalances. Tyrosine is an amino acid that works as a precursor to dopamine. Caffeine and other stimulants tend to consume dopamine, so tyrosine helps to keep dopamine from being depleted, mitigating side effects. Tyrosine is particularly helpful for maintaining cognitive function under stressful situations. It supports the ability for decision making, flow states and creativity. Tyrosine is also helpful for building adrenaline and noradrenaline.

    Passion flower is all about calming the mind and relieving anxiety. It helps to relax the autonomous nervous system. Passion flower’s job is to induce a relaxed feeling, so it has been traditionally used for treating anxiety, insomnia and hysteria. It has been used to promote healthy sleep, especially in cases where exhaustion has led to sleep interruptions or general restlessness. Passion flower is a shrub native to many tropical parts of the world. In combination with Lemon Balm, Passion Flower can be quite effective in enhancing GABA.

    Polygala tenuifolia root is about contentment, feeling of complacency. In traditional medicine, this herb was known as the "will strengthener," because clients asserted it improves creative thinking, enhances dreaming, and manifests ideas. Polygala contains tenuifolin which may have some sleep-enhancing effects. Polygala is also anti-inflammatory for the nervous system and  contains saponins that may have sedative effects.

    Quercetin, a yellow-colored flavonol, has antiviral and antibacterial properties along with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. You can find most of this yellow flavonoid pigment in cappers, wild greens and green herbs, berries and apple skins. Quercetin helps zinc to get into the cell where it can make it difficult for viruses to replicate. The human body cannot produce quercetin, but it’s abundant in many plants. Vitamin C enhances the potency and longevity of quercetin in the body, as do other bioflavonoids from citrus fruits and onions.

    Reishi is a medicinal mushroom growing on trees. It is one of the most studied herbs in the world. Reishi can support the stress response by reducing excessive cortisol and adrenaline levels. Reishi can help with relaxation and improved sleep. Traditionally recommended by Chinese and Japanese herbalists as a treatment for insomnia. Different people react to reishi very differently. Some feel immediate stress relief and calmness from their first dose, and for some a strong dose of reishi can be the best thing for a good night’s sleep. Others don’t notice much, and for some a too strong of a dose can feel unpleasant. We included just a bit of reishi in our Sleep Blend, so you can use it with confidence. Don’t get me wrong: Reishi is very safe, even at larger doses. It’s just that we want to make sure our products are completely pleasant to as many users as possible. If Reishi is your herb of choice, you can add up to a gram or even two of your favorite Reishi extract to your evening or night time drink along with our Sleep Blend.

    Selenium is involved in most aspects of cell biochemistry and function. Selenium has a broad potential to influence the immune system. Adequate levels of Selenium are important for initiating immunity, regulating excessive immune responses and chronic inflammation. 

    Selenium is crucial in the production of glutathione, perhaps the most important antioxidant that it produces. Glutathione helps many cells of the immune system to function properly, and protects healthy tissues from the “fires” of inflammation that an active immune response always creates.

    Shiitake is the medicinal mushroom you probably know from the supermarket. Shiitake is actually the second most cultivated mushroom in the world. Like chaga and many other tree mushrooms, it does good things to your gut immunity. Shiitake contains polysaccharides called beta-glucans, that enhance the function of natural killer cells and macrophages. Lentinan is the most studied of those polysaccharides. Shiitake is known for its immune-enhancing and antimicrobial benefits. Like other medicinal mushrooms, shiitake may have noticable benefits on the nervous system. Shiitake contains plenty of vitamins and germanium, which enhances the immune system and the body’s oxygen supply. Germanium is said to facilitate oxygen’s movement into the cells, across cellular membranes.

    Taurine is sleep magic for some, and something that many of us could use a bit more of.

    Taurine is one of the major so-called inhibitory neurotransmitters in the brain along with GABA and glycine. Taurine has been shown to reduce anxiety. Taurine diminishes the Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 2 expression in glia cells in the brain leading to the promotion of sleep. Taurine may also enhance GABA to some extent. Hard exercise and stress deplete taurine, and vegetarians may especially benefit from added taurine intake.

    Theacrine is a gentler as a stimulant when compared to caffeine. It makes you feel awake and alert but not hyper. Theacrine is an alkaloid found in fe. Kuchu and Cupuaçu fruit. Theacrine might exist, as a metabolite end product of caffeine, in many caffeine-containing plants. The chemical structure of theacrine is close to caffeine, but the effect is longer-lasting and less tolerance-inducing. Many users report that combining caffeine with theacrine works like magic.

    Theacrine is anti-inflammatory, and has beneficial effects on liver functionality and glutathione synthesis. With theacrine 25-200 mg/day is the usually recommended effective dosage range. 

    Theacrine works in quite similar ways as caffeine, occupying the adenosine receptor in the brain and increasing dopamine levels – but theacrine wears off more slowly without a crash.

    All B vitamins are responsible for important functions, including contributing to nerve, heart, blood, skin and eye health, reducing inflammation, and supporting hormonal function. One of the most well-known roles of B vitamins is maintaining a healthy metabolism and digestive system. 

    Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)  is required in acetylcholine production. Thiamine helps with focus, cellular energy production and stamina against stress. Thiamine plays an important role in helping the body convert carbohydrates and fat into energy. Thiamine also helps with building the myelin sheath that protects the nerves. Thiamine is easy to come by in many kinds of foods, but we included a bit to make sure there are no bottlenecks. As you use up more neurotransmitters in your focused work sessions, your need for B-vitamins might increase above normal levels.

    Vitamin B2 is used in combination with other B vitamins, which make up the “B vitamin complex.” B2 must be present in high enough amounts in the body to allow other B vitamins, including B6 and folic acid, to function properly. Riboflavin has some antioxidant and anti-inflammatory benefits. It’s important for mitochondrial function (cellular energy production) and even tryptophan metabolism, as well as general brain function.

    Vitamin B3 (Niacin) is all about energy. Niacin is used to form NAD and NADH, which are critical in every cell’s energy production. Niacin boosts the production of Nitric Oxide, to increase blood flow in the brain. Niacin stimulates production of dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin, affecting mood, memory and learning. Niacin increases Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), which has to do with new nerve growth and neuroplasticity. Just don’t overdo on niacin, unless you want to experience the flush! Among many things, niacin is needed in the production of some of the fatty compounds that make up our cell walls. Niacin spares tryptophan, so there’s more tryptophan left for the production of mood-enhancing serotonin and sleep-inducing melatonin.

    Vitamin B5 is especially important when it comes to stressful situations and adrenal gland function. Pantothenic acid is required for acetylcholine production from choline. Without adequate levels of B5 you would not experience the benefits of alpha GPC or Citicoline. Vitamin B5 can help reduce stress, anxiety and depression. It’s important for building fatty acids, new cells and tissues, as well as the production of cholesterol and some hormones. To function well, B5 needs B12, folate and vitamin C.

    Vitamin B6 is neuroprotective, and participates in the production of many neurotransmitters. Most importantly, it helps with the production of dopamine, serotonin and melatonin. Dopamine is responsible for motivation or reward-seeking, serotonin for happiness and melatonin for circardian rhythm.

    Without adequate B6 in the body, not much would happen with this product. P5P, the active form of Vitamin B6, is involved in over 4% of reactions in the body. It’s even involved in the production of hemoglobin, which carries oxygen around the body.

    Like many B-vitamins, B6 is essential for cellular energy metabolism, cell reproduction, immune function and hormone regulation.

    B6 is even essential for the absorption or utilization of zinc and magnesium.

    Vitamin B6 is needed for the conversion of tryptophan toward eventual conversion into melatonin. B6 might be the most probable bottleneck in the function of tryptophan pathway (from 5-htp to serotonin to melatonin). B6 might also help tryptophan absorb better. So we added just a bit to be on the safe side.

    Folate is essential for vitamin B12 to function. Folate plays its part in the production of serotonin dopamine, adrenaline and noradrenaline. Folate donates a methyl group to homocysteine to make SAMe (S-adenosyl-L-methionine). SAMe then participates in the formation of myelin, phospholipids, carnitine and creatine in the brain. Thus folate helps strengthen the nervous system in many ways.

    Folate is also essential in the synthesis of DNA & RNA.

    B12 is The Brain Vitamin. It’s very neuroprotective. Methylcobalamin is the main form found in the cytosol (intracellular fluid), blood and other body fluids. Methylcobalamin, together with methylfolate, is the best form for lowering homocysteine (which is generally good news for a well-functioning brain). B12 in general helps with neurotransmitter synthesis, alertness, cognition, memory and mood. It improves regeneration of neurons and reduces neurotoxicity.

    Adenosylcobalamin is the major form of B12 in the mitochondria, that is, the energy-generating organelle inside cells. Adenosylcobalamin is more important than methylcobalamin for myelin sheath formation, to protect our valuable neurons. Methylcobalamin and adenosylcobalamin are the two forms that naturally occur in the body.

    Lack of adenosylcobalamin puts stress on the mitochondria. This can cause mitochondria to turn to anaerobic metabolism. Without sufficient adenosylcobalamin, myelin degrades. That leads to slowing of nerve signals or worse. The body can form this valuable adenosyl-form of B12 from the cyanocobalamin (the most common form in supplements) and from hydroxycobalamin, but not so much from methylcobalamin. That’s why we wanted to include both active forms that the body uses of this important brain vitamin.

    Vitashine D3 comes from lichens. Vitamin D is probably the most important vitamin for the immune system. Vitamin D can boost your immune system, while simultaneously regulating the arm of the immune system involved in autoimmunity. To prevent an autoimmune response, vitamin D regulates Th1 and Th2 cells, the white blood cells that may be programmed to attack the cells and tissues of the body.

    The most well-known role of vitamin D is regulating the absorption of calcium (and phosphorous). A less known aspect is its effect on mood and energy levels. D is quite literally “the sunshine vitamin”.

    Vitamin D also helps with blood sugar regulation and insulin sensitivity.

    K2 vitamin is in this formula to balance the vitamin D. It’s good to keep some sort of a balance with these fat soluble vitamins. K2 is quite rare in the modern food system. MK4 is the more rare version of vitamin K2 in food and supplements – yet it’s the primary form in the body. 

    Taking vitamins K2, A, D and magnesium together can ensure that both our immune system and its response are strong and well coordinated. With enough K2 you can take more vitamin D without rise in calcification risk. MK4 is the form of K2 most associated with sex hormone production. MK4 is the best for preventing fractures or strengthening. It’s the form found in mothers milk. MK4 even helps with healthy collagen production and may protect nerve cells.

    MK7 is the more common form of vitamin K2. It’s formed in certain fermentation processes. MK7 probably has a better bioavailability over MK4 form, and might be more effective at lower doses. MK7 may be the better form for nourishing the liver and bone.

    Yerba mate, an extract from the leaves and branches of the Ilex paraguariensis tree, is one of the few caffeine-containing plants in the world. And it’s more than just caffeine. Yerba mate contains other stimulating alkaloids, mainly theobromine and theophylline. Together they provide a longer-lasting effect than caffeine alone. Yerba mate also contains unique compounds called matenosides. This could be one reason why Yerba mate offers a cleaner result than many other stimulants, without jitters. Yerba also includes high amounts of beneficial polyphenols.

    Quercetin helps zinc get into cells, where zinc makes it difficult for viruses to replicate.

    Zinc is a cofactor in more than 300 enzymes influencing various organ functions having effect on the immune system. If you are low in zinc, it affects your immune function by increasing your risk of getting an infection. Zinc is needed in making system cells like T-lymphocytes — white blood cells that shut down infected cells.

    You’ll find zinc in every cell of your body.

    — Ingredient illustrations by Antti Kemppainen